Exploring Teacher's Obstacles and Strategies Toward the Implementation of English as a Medium of Instruction in Homeschooling

Irma Damayanti(1), F. X. Mukarto(2),
(1) Sanata Dharma University  Indonesia
(2) Sanata Dharma University  Indonesia

Corresponding Author
Copyright (c) 2024 Lingua Didaktika: Jurnal Bahasa dan Pembelajaran Bahasa

DOI : https://doi.org/10.24036/ld.v18i1.125345

Full Text:    Language : en


The rapid pace of globalization has led to the widespread adoption of English as a Medium of Instruction (EMI) in Indonesia. Extensive attention has been devoted to examining academic challenges, yet the complexities associated with integrating English as a Medium of Instruction (EMI) into homeschooling settings have remained largely unexplored. This case study delves into the utilization of EMI for teaching Science and Math within a homeschooling context. Through meticulous observation and interviews, this investigation reveals that two primary obstacles emerge: the comprehension of Science and Math terminology in English and students' proficiency in the language. In their daily classes, students typically engage with Science and Math concepts using Indonesian, which presents a significant hurdle when encountering English terminology. EMI classes, offered as extracurricular activities, attracted participation from third- and fourth-grade students. To address the linguistic challenge, the teacher implemented a strategy of code-switching, adeptly recontextualizing unfamiliar vocabulary using everyday language. Recognizing the diverse language competency levels among students, collaborative learning and grouping strategies were employed to enhance effectiveness in addressing these challenges. This approach fostered an environment where students could support one another, facilitating improved understanding and engagement with the material.


English as a Medium of Instruction, Homeschool, Obstacles and Strategies, Science and Math


Al-Subaiei, M. S. (2017). Challenges in Mixed Ability Classes and Strategies Utilized by ELI Teachers to Cope with Them. English Language Teaching, 10(6), 182. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v10n6p182

Ansari, M. S. (2013). Coping with the problems of mixed ability classes: A study in the context of teaching English as SL/FL. International Journal of English: Literature, Language & Skills, 2(1), 110–118.

Barrantes, L. (2019). Strategies for Mixed-Level Classes: Participation and Grouping. TESOL Connections, 1–5.

Bell, Lisa. M., & Aldridge, J. . M. (2014). Student Voice, Teacher Action Research and Classroom Improvement. SensePublishers.

Blank, F. (2023, April 23). Top 40 Most Spoken Languages in the World in 2023. Lingua Language Center

Broward Collage. https://lingua.edu/the-most-spoken-languages-in-the-world/

Bokamba, E. G. (1989). Are there syntactic constraints on code-mixing?*. Word Englishes, 8(3), 277–292. https://doi.org/doi:10.1111/j.1467-971x.1989.tb00669.x

Coxhead, A. (2000). A New Academic Word List. In TESOL QUARTERLY (Vol. 34, Issue 2).

Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches ((4th ed.)). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Dearden, J. (2014). English as a medium of instruction – a growing global phenomenon: phase 1. www.britishcouncil.org/education/ihe

DeJonckheere, M., & Vaughn, L. M. (2019). Semi-structured interviewing in primary care research: A balance of relationship and rigour. Family Medicine and Community Health, 7(2). https://doi.org/10.1136/fmch-2018-000057


Ducker, N. (2019). English as a Medium of Instruction. The TESOL Encyclopedia of English Language Teaching, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118784235.eelt0968

Ernawati, E., Sofendi, S., & Silvhiany, S. (2021). English as a Medium of Instruction (EMI): A primary school teachers' and students' perceptions. International Journal of Research in Counseling and Education, 5(1), 24. https://doi.org/10.24036/00414za0002

Hakim, M. A. Al. (2021). Journal of Language Teaching and Learning, Linguistics and Literature Revealing the Potential Impacts of English-Medium Instruction(EMI) in Indonesian Higher Education Context. 9(2), 461–472. https://doi.org/10.24256/ideas.v912.2343

Hitchcock, G., & Hughes, D. (1995). Research and the Teacher: A Qualitative Introduction to School-Based Research, Second Edition. Routledge.

Husarida, H., & Dollete, R. D. (2019). Perceived Effectiveness on the Use of English Language in Teaching Mathematics and Science. Indonesian Research Journal in Education , 3, 2580–5711.

Ibrahim, J. (2001). The Implementation of EMI (English Medium Instruction) in Indonesian Universities: Its Opportunities, its Threats, its Problems, and its Possible Solutions*. International TEFLIN Conference, 121–137. http://puslit.petra.ac.id/journals/letters/121

KA, A. P., & Ambarini, R. (2022). Code Switching and Its Implications for Teaching in the English Language in Math Lessons by Early Childhood Education Teachers. KnE Social Sciences, 2022. https://doi.org/10.18502/kss.v7i19.12428

Laal, M., & Ghodsi, S. M. (2012). Benefits of collaborative learning. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 31, 486–490. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.12.091

Lamb, M., Waskita, D., Kuchah, K., Hadisantosa, N., & Ahmad, N. F. (2021). The state of English as Medium of Instruction (EMI) in Higher Education Institutions in Indonesia.

Lin, T., & Lei, J. (2021). English-Medium Instruction and Content Learning in Higher Education: Effects of Medium of Instruction, English Proficiency, and Academic Ability. SAGE Open, 11(4). https://doi.org/10.1177/21582440211061533

Macaro, E. (2019). Exploring the role of language in English medium instruction. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 23(3), 263–276. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2019.1620678

Manh, L. D. (2012). English as a Medium of Instruction in Asian Universities: The Case of Vietnam. Language Education in Asia, 3(2), 263–267. https://doi.org/10.5746/leia/12/v3/i2/a14/manh

Nor, M. F., Aziz, M. A., & Jusoff, K. (2011). Should English for Teaching Mathematics and Science (ETeMS) in Malaysia Be Abolished? World Applied Sciences Journal, 12, 36–40.

Nur, S., Nurfadhilah, A. S., Dewi, E. M. P., & Jamilah. (2023). English as medium of instruction (MOI) in classroom activities: Teachers' perceptions from eastern Indonesia. JOALL (Journal of Applied Linguistics and Literature), 8(1), 59–74. https://doi.org/10.33369/joall.v8i1.22792

Owu-Ewie, C., & Eshun, E. S. (2015). The Use of English as Medium of Instruction at the Upper Basic Level (Primary four to Junior High School) in Ghana: From Theory to Practice. 6(3). www.iiste.org

Paris, N., Samad, P., & Rauf, F. A. (2022). The Use of English Medium Instruction on EFL Students at Tertiary Education Level. English Education Journal, 5(2), 94–102.

Penthisarn, T., & Phusawisot, P. (2021). Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics Perceptions of Thai Teachers of English Towards English Medium Instruction: A Case Study of a Local Primary School. Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, 3(9), 13–21. https://doi.org/10.32996/jeltal

Putra, H. D., Setiawan, W., & Afrilianto, M. (2020). Indonesian High Scholar Difficulties In Learning Mathematics. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH, 9, 1. www.ijstr.org

Qomariah, A. R., Driana, E., & Setiadi, H. (2022). Evaluation of the implementation of English medium instruction. Jurnal Penelitian Dan Evaluasi Pendidikan, 26(1), 59–71. https://doi.org/10.21831/pep.v26i1.45008

Sah, P. K. (2022). English medium instruction in South Asian's multilingual schools: unpacking the dynamics of ideological orientations, policy/practices, and democratic questions. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 25(2), 742–755. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2020.1718591

Sairo, I., Stkip, A., Khatulistiwa, P., Pertamina, J., & Sengkuang, S. (2015). KESULITAN BELAJAR IPA PESERTA DIDIK SEKOLAH DASAR. Vox Edukasi, 6(2), 108–122.

Soika, B. (2020, April 30). How to address a wide range of skills and abilities in your classroom. USC Rossier School of Education. https://rossier.usc.edu/news-insights/news/how-address-wide-range-skills-and-abilities-your-classroom

Svärd, A.-C. (2007). The challenge of mixed-ability classes-How should upper secondary English teachers work in order to help the weaker students?

Waris, A. M. (2012). Code Swtcihing and Mixing (Ahmad Mustamir Waris) Code switching and mixing (Communication in Learning Language). Jurnal Dakwah Tabligh, 12(1), 123–135.

Waswa, D. W. (2020). The Effects and Implications of The Use of English as a Medium of Instruction in Mathematics on Thai Learners. International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, 7(2). https://doi.org/10.23918/ijsses.v7i2p89

Yahaya, M. F. Bin, Noor, M. A. B. M., Mokhtar, A. A. Bin, Rawian, R. B. M., Othman, M. Bin, & Jusoff, K. (2009). English Language Teaching Teaching of Mathematics and Science in English: The Teachers' Voices. English Language Teaching, 2(1), 141–147.

Article Metrics

 Abstract Views : 84 times
 PDF Downloaded : 16 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2024 Lingua Didaktika: Jurnal Bahasa dan Pembelajaran Bahasa

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.