GERUND IN ENGLISH: A Morpho-Semantic Note for EFL Learners in Indonesia

Jufrizal Jufrizal(1), Lely Refnita(2),
(1) Universitas Negeri Padang  Indonesia
(2) Universitas Bung Hatta  Indonesia

Corresponding Author
Copyright (c) 2021 Lingua Didaktika: Jurnal Bahasa dan Pembelajaran Bahasa


Full Text:    Language : en


Two questions are to answer as the basis for data analysis and discussion, namely: (i) does English gerund belong to nominalization or verbalization?; and (ii) why do EFL learners in Indonesia academically need to understand the morpho-semantic properties of the English gerunds? The data presented and analyzed in this paper were collected by means of a short-limited research in the form of library study and supported by writers’ experience as the lecturers of English Grammar and Linguistics. The data analysis and discussion are based on relevant linguistic theories of morpho-syntactic properties of gerunds and those which belong to the principles of Pedagogical Grammar of EFL. The result of data analysis reveals that gerund in English is both nominalization and verbalization with certain morpho-semantic characteristics. As English gerunds are practically productive and linguistically unique, the EFL learners in Indonesia undoubtedly need the linguistic-grammatical knowledge and they are proceeded to have the ability to use gerunds grammatically. The idea delivered through this paper is believed as a significant note for EFL learners, particularly in Indonesia.


English, morpho-semantic aspects, nominalization, verbalization


Alduais. A. M. S. (2013). Main Schools of Grammar, Grammar in Schools, and Pedagogical Grammar. International Journal of English Language Education. 1(1), 35-48. http://dx.doi.arg/10.5296/ijele.v/i/

Bygate, M., Tonkyn, A., & William, E. (1994). Grammar and the Language Teacher. New York: Prentice Hall.

Dirven. R. (2008). Pedagogical Grammar. Language Teaching. Vol 23 Issue 1 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. December 2008. pp. 1-18. DOI:

Duffley. P. (2007). A Natural-language Semantics Approach to invinitival and gerund-participial complementation in English. Anglophonia. French Journal of English Linguistics, 11(22), 55-67.

Gerund definition and meaning. Collin English Dictionary.

Grancharova. S. (2016). Some cases of Gerund-Centered Syntactic Condensation in English. Essays. Honour of Michael Grancharova: Trees of Knowledge. Plovdiv: Plovdiv University Press.

Grim, S., & McNally. L. (2015). The –ing dynasty: Rebuilding the Semantics of Nominalizations. Proceedings of SALT25.

Ibrahim. H. (2019). The Nominal Roles of Gerunds and Infinitives. PUPIL: International Journal of Teaching, Education, and Learning. 3(1), 181-188. online at:

Johannessen, G. (2019). Introduction: Multilingualism and bilingual education: Politics, policies, and practices in a globalized society. In G. Guzmán Johannessen (Ed.), Bilingualism and bilingual education: Politics, policies, and practices in a globalized society (pp. 1–6). Springer.

Khamis. A. (2012). Nominal and verbal gerunds with genitive subjects in present-day Engflish: A Comparative Corpus Study. A Thesis of Master Degree. 3000 Leuven, Belgium: KU Leuven Faculty of Art.

Kindenberg, B. (2021). Fixed and flexible, correct and wise: A case of genre-based content-area writing. Linguistics and Education, 64, 1-12.

Lowe. J. (2016). Participles, Gerunds, and Syntactic Categories. Proceeding of the Joint 2016 Conference on Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar and Lexical Functional Grammar. Poland: Polish Academy of Science. CSLI Publication. pp. 401-421.

Nor, N. M., & Rashid, R. A. (2018). A review of theoretical perspectives on language learning and acquisition. Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences, 39, 161-167.

Odlin. T. (1994). Perspectives of Pedagogical Grammar. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Parrott, M. (200). Grammar for English Language Teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rhalmi. M. (2020). What is the Difference between Prescriptive, Descriptive, and Pedagogical Grammar? Prescriptive, Descriptive, and Pedagogical Grammar Teaching. Published April 19, 202; updated July 7, 2020.

Stern, H. H. (1994). Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Taher. I. I. (2013). The Problematic Forms of Nominalization in English: Gerund, Verbal Noun, and Deverbal Noun. English Linguistics Research, 4(1), 30-40.

Veselovska, L., &Emmods, J. E. (2014). From Theory to Practice. Proceeding of the Sixth International Conference on Anglophonia Studies. Thomas Bata University in Zlin, Czech Republic. ISBN: 978-80-7454-538-2; ISSN: 1805-9899.

Werner, P. K. & Nelson, J. P. (1985). Mosaic II: A Content-Based Grammar. New York: Random House, Inc. 1985.

Werner, P. K. & Nelson, J. P. (2002). Mosaic 2: Grammar 4th Edition, International Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Article Metrics

 Abstract Views : 448 times
 PDF Downloaded : 136 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Lingua Didaktika: Jurnal Bahasa dan Pembelajaran Bahasa

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.