Ainul Addinna(1), Ririn Ovilia(2), Risda Asfina(3),
(1) Universitas Negeri Padang  Indonesia
(2) Universitas Negeri Padang  Indonesia
(3) Prof. Dr. Hamka II Padang  Indonesia

Corresponding Author
Copyright (c) 2019 Lingua Didaktika: Jurnal Bahasa dan Pembelajaran Bahasa


Full Text:    Language : en


Empirically visualizing the text being read into pictures, diagrams, or images evidently deepens students’ reading comprehension. Given the evidence of its significance, this study aims to figure out the effect of visualizing the text upon the students’ reading comprehension observed from their cognitive learning styles namely field dependent (FD) and field independent (FI). Due to its purpose, the experimental study, quasy-experimental research to be specific, was carried out. Fifty four fifth-semester students at Universitas Negeri Malang participated in this study. The findings were shockingly contradictory with the empirical evidence provided in previous studies. It is revealed that visualization strategy was proven to be significantly ineffective in enhancing students’ reading comprehension on account for some factors. However, the mean score of FI students in experimental group was slightly above FD students.


Visualization strategy, Cognitive Learning Style


Almasi, J.F., & Fullerton, S.K. (2000). Teaching strategic processes in reading. New York: the Guilford Press.

Anderson, R. C., & Pearson, P. D. (1984). A schema-theoretic view of basic processes in reading comprehension. In P. D. Pearson (Ed.), Handbook of Reading Research: 255-291. NY: Longman.

Arcavi, A. (2003). The role of visual representations in the learning of mathematics, Educational Studies in Mathematics, 52(3): 215–24.

Ary, D. Jacobs, L.C., Razavieh, A.,& Sorensen, C. (2010). Introduction to research in education (8thed). California: The Thompson Corporation.

Bahar, M., & Hansell, M.H. (2000). The relationship between some psychological factors and their effect on theperformance of grid questions and word association tests. Educational Psychology, 20 (3): 349-364.

Bortolotto.(2008). Explicit teaching of visualizing using RIDER strategy will improve the comprehension of a whole class of grade four students, (online) retrieved on Januari 5, 2015 from /LiteracyResearch/pub/Projects/Intake%2016/CBortolotto_AR.pdf

Fitriani, I. (2015). Panorama strategy and second language content area reading comprehension skill of students accross cognitive style and gender. Malang: Unpublished Graduate Thesis.

Gambrell, L. B. (1982). Induced mental imagery and the text prediction performance of first and third graders. In J. A. Niles & L. A. Harris (Eds.), New Inquiries inReading Research and Instruction. Thirty-first Yearbook of the National Reading Conference: 131-135. Rochester, NY: National Reading Conference.

Gambrell, L.B., and Jawitz, P.B. (1993). Mental imagery, text illustrations, and children’s story comprehension and recall. Reading Research Quarterly, 23: 265-273.

Ghazanfari, M. (2009). The role of visualization in efl learners' reading comprehension and recall of short stories. Iranian Journal of Applied Language Studies, 1 (1): 1-23.

Hobbs, R. (2001). Improving reading comprehension by using media literacy activities. Voices from the Middle, 8(4): 44-50.

Kahtz, A. W., & Kling, G. J. (1999). Field-dependent and field-independent conceptualization of various instructional methods with an emphasis on CAI: A qualitative analysis. Educational Psychology 19: 413-428.

Krashen, S. (2003). Exploration in language acquisition and use. New York: Heinamann.

Luk, S. C. (1998). The influence of a distance-learning environment on students’

field dependence/independence. The Journal of Experimental Education, 66:149-160.

Maghsudi, M. (2007). The interaction between field-dependent/independent learning styles and learners’ linguality in third language acquisition. language in india, (online) retrieved on July 15, 2015 from http:/

Marta. (2010). Explicit teaching of the visualization strategy rider to year 2 students will improve reading comprehension of narrative text. (online) retrieved on January 4, 2015 from files/links /RIDER_ long.pdf.

McNamara, D. S. (2007). Reading comprehension strategies: theories, interventions, and technologies. mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Oakhill, J., & Patel, S. (1991). Can imagery training help children who have comprehension problems? Journal of Research in Reading, 14(2): 106-115.

Ovilia, R. (2019). The relationship of topic familiarity and listening comprehension. Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, 276, 182-186.

Oxford, R.L. (1990). Language Learning Strategies: What Every Teacher Should Know. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.

Rahmaniah, S. (2015). Genre familiarity vs topic familiarity as factors affecting efl reading comprehension across gender. Malang: Unpublished thesis master.

Riding, R.J., &Rayner, S.G. (2000). International perspectives on individual differences–volume 1: cognitive stles. Stamford: Ablex Publishing Corporation.

Sadoski, M., &Willson, V. L. (2006). Effects of a theoretically based large-scale reading intervention in a multicultural urban school district. American Educational Research Journal, 43(1): 137-154.

Syafitri, W. (2014). The impact of flipped classroom on reading comprehension of high school students with different cognitive learning styles. Malang: Unpublished graduated thesis.

Tomlinson, B. (1997). The role of visualization in the reading of literature by learners of a foreign language. Nottingham: Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Nottingham. Microfilmed version: The British library, British Thesis Service.

Witkins, H., Moore, C. Goodenough, D., & Cox, P. (1977). Field-independent and field-dependent cognitive style and their educational implications. Review of Educational Research, 47 (1): 1-64.

Zeigler, L.L. & J. L. Johns (2005). Visualization: Using mental images to strengthen comprehension. Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company.

Article Metrics

 Abstract Views : 1436 times
 PDF Downloaded : 450 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Lingua Didaktika: Jurnal Bahasa dan Pembelajaran Bahasa

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.