PROSTHETIC TRANSLATION: RETRANSLATIONS OF VIDEO GAME REMAKES AND REMASTERS REFUTE RETRANSLATION HYPOTHESIS

SF. Luthfie Arguby Purnomo, SF. Lukfianka Sanjaya Purnama, Lilik Untari

Abstract


Retranslation Hypothesis claims that retranslations tend to be more source-oriented than the first translations. Video game translation (VGT) refutes this hypothesis since retranslations in VGT, occuring on game remakes and remasters, are target oriented. We argue that retranslations in VGT context are better to be termed prosthetic translation, a retranslation involving game mechanics adjustments at intertextual level. To prove that prosthetic translation is of existence, we applied theories of retranslation, multiplicity, commodified nostalgia, and intertextual continuity on seven titles of Square Enix’s award winning Final Fantasy series. The original Japanese versions, North American versions, their first translations, and retranslations were analyzed to prove the presence of prosthetic translation. The findings show that retranslations on the series are oriented to target gaming system and the aesthetics of mechanics and narrative intertextuality and thus refuting Retranslation Hypothesis. Based on the findings, we argue that retranslation of video game remakes and remasters focuses on repairing extremities or intertextual losses, occuring due to game narrative and mechanical aesthetics. These intertextual losses are repaired by attaching mechanical prostheses like dialogue box extension or modification, font type and size alteration, and other mechanical modification to ensure present time recontextualization of the remade and remastered games.   

Keywords: Retranslation hypothesis, prosthetic translation, remakes, remasters, video game translation


PENERJEMAHAN PROSTETIK: SANGGAHAN TERHADAP HIPOTESIS PENERJEMAHAN ULANG (RETRANSLATION HYPOTHESIS) MELALUI REMAKE DAN REMASTER VIDEO GAME

 Abstrak

Hipotesis Penerjemahan Ulang (Retranslation Hypothesis) menyatakan bahwa penerjemahan ulang cenderung lebih berorientasi pada sumber jika dibandingkan dengan penerjemahan pertama. Penerjemahan video game menyanggah pernyataan ini karena penerjemahan ulang dalam konteks video game yang muncul pada remake dan remaster cenderung lebih berorientasi pada target penggunanya. Tulisan ini menyarankan bahwa penerjemahan ulang dalam penerjemahan video game sebaiknya disebut dengan penerjemahan prostetik, penerjemahan ulang yang mengikutsertakan penyesuaian mekanisme game-nya pada tataran intertekstual. Untuk membuktikan keberadaan penerjemahan prostetik, teori penerjemahan ulang, multiplicity yang membahas mengenai remake dan remaster, komodifikasi nostalgia, dan kontinuitas intertekstual diaplikasikan pada tujuh judul serial Final Fantasy untuk mengungkapkan keberadaan penerjemahan prostetik. Ketujuh judul tersebut terdiri dari versi asli Jepangnya, versi terjemahan bahasa Inggrisnya, versi terjemahan pertama dan terjemahan ulangnya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penerjemahan ulang dalam video game berorientasi pada sistem game sasarannya dan estetika intertekstualitas mekanis dan naratif game-nya. Temuan ini menyanggah Hipotesis Penerjemahan Ulang. Temuan juga menunjukkan bahwa penerjemahan prostetik berfungsi untuk memperbaiki ekstrimitas atau rumpang intertekstual, yang muncul karena estetika mekanis dan naratif dalam sebuah game. Rumpang intertekstual ini diperbaiki melalui prostetik mekanis seperti ekstensifikasi atau modifikasi kotak dialog, alterasi ukuran font, dan modifikasi mekanis lainnya guna terjaminnya rekontekstualisasi masa kini sebuah remake dan remaster video game.

Kata Kunci: Hipotesis penerjemahan ulang, penerjemahan prostetik, remake, remaster, penerjemahan video game

Keywords


Retranslation Hypothesis; Prosthetic Translation; Remakes; Remasters; Video Game Translation; Intertextuality

Full Text:

PDF

References


Aarseth, E. J. (1997). Cybertext: perspectives on ergodic literature. JHU Press.

Bensimon, P. 1990. Présentation. Palimpsestes. Retraduire. Vol. 4. IX-XIII.

Berman, A. 1990. La retraduction comme espace de la traduction. Palimpsestes. Retraduire. Vol. 4. 1-7.

Bogost, I. (2008). Unit operations: An approach to videogame criticism. MIT press.

Cuff, S., & Terry, C. (2017). Commodified nostalgia and the virtual console. The Evolution and Social Impact of Video Game Economics, 15.

Desmidt, I. (2009). (Re) translation revisited. Meta: Journal des traducteurs/Meta: Translators' Journal, 54(4), 669-683.

D’hulst, L. (2008). Cultural translation. Beyond Descriptive Translation Studies. Investigations on homage to Gideon Toury, Amsterdam and Philadelphia: Benjamins, 221-232.

Du-Nour, M. (1995). Retranslation of children's books as evidence of changes of norms. Target. International Journal of Translation Studies, 7(2), 327-346.

Evans, J. (2014). Film remakes, the black sheep of translation. Translation Studies, 7(3), 300-314.

Gottlieb, H. (2005). Multidimensional translation: semantics turned semiotics. MuTra, 33-61.

Gürçağlar, Ş. T. (2009). Retranslation. Routledge encyclopedia of translation studies, 233-36.

House, J. (1997). Translation quality assessment: A model revisited (Vol. 410). Gunter Narr Verlag.

Klein, A. A., & Palmer, R. B. (Eds.). (2016). Cycles, sequels, spin-offs, remakes, and reboots: Multiplicities in film and television. University of Texas Press.

Koskinen, K., & Paloposki, O. (2010). Retranslation. Handbook of translation studies, 1, 294-298.

Molina, L., & Hurtado Albir, A. (2002). Translation techniques revisited: A dynamic and functionalist approach. Meta: Journal des Traducteurs/Meta: Translators' Journal, 47(4), 498-512.

Mangiron, C. (2012). The localisation of Japanese video games: Striking the right balance. The Journal of Internationalization and Localization, 2(1), 1-20.

Mathijssen, J. W. (2007). The breach and the observance: Theatre retranslation as a strategy of artistic differentiation, with special reference to retranslations of Shakespeare's Hamlet (1777-2001) (Doctoral dissertation, Utrecht University).

Nababan, M.R., Nuraeni, & Sumardiono (2012). Pengembangan model penilaian kualitas terjemahan. Kajian Linguistik dan Sastra, 24 (1), 39-57.

Newman, J. (2002). The myth of the ergodic videogame. Game studies, 2(1), 1-17.

O'Toole, M. (2011). Art vs computer: Animation integrity and technology in south park. Routledge as part of the Taylor and Francis Group.

Paloposki, O., & Koskinen, K. (2004). A thousand and one translations: Revisiting retranslation. Benjamins Translation Library, 50, 27-38.

Pedersen, J. (2017). The FAR model: Assessing quality in interlingual subtitling. Journal of Specialised Translation, (28), 210-229.

Sakellariou, P. (2015). The appropriation of the concept of intertextuality for translation theoretic purposes. Translation Studies, 8(1), 35-47.

Salter, A. (2017). Taking over the world, again? Examining procedural remakes of adventure games. Well Played, 68.

Santosa, R. (2017). Metode penelitian kualitatif kebahasaan. Surakarta: UNS.

Somigli, L., Horton, A., & Mc-Dougal, S. Y. (1998). Play It Again, Sam: Retakes on Remakes.

Spradley, J. P. (2016). Participant observation. Waveland Press.

Venuti, L. (2009). Translation, intertextuality, interpretation. Romance Studies, 27(3), 157-173.

Zhang, H., & Ma, H. (2018). Intertextuality in retranslation. Perspectives, 26(4), 576-592.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.24036/humanus.v18i1.103507

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2019 Humanus

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Humanus: Jurnal Ilmiah Ilmu-ilmu Humaniora, an international open acces peer-reviewed online journal in humanity studies published by Pusat Kajian Humaniora FBS Universitas Negeri Padang, Indonesia.

P-ISSN 1410-8062, e-ISSN 2528-3936.

Currently, Humanus: Jurnal Ilmiah Ilmu-ilmu Humaniora is indexed by:

Creative Commons License

Humanus: Jurnal Ilmiah Ilmu-ilmu Humaniora is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

StatCounter - Free Web Tracker and Counter View Humanus Stats